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Block height

The number of preceding blocks in the chain, including the genesis block, which were confirmed by the target block. The genesis block has a height zero. Preceding orphan blocks don't increment the block height since they are not considered to be confirmed. Although uncle blocks are considered to be "confirmed", they don't increment the block height either. These "blocks" don't contribute to the overall chain weight and don't cause state transition at any node upon acceptance.

Bootstrapping node

A bootstrapping node is a node holding only the genesis block and booting for the first time in attempt to synchronize with the rest of the network.

Branching Point

The block at which the block chain diverges into multiple chain branches.


"Coinbase" is another name for a generation transaction. The input of such a transaction contains some arbitrary data where the scriptSig would go in normal transactions -- this data is sometimes called the "coinbase", as well.

Current block height

The height of the last block in the block chain. It equals to the main chain length minus one.


Attempting to spend coins that have already been spent in another transaction.


The output of a cryptographic hash function.

Hash function

A computer algorithm which takes an arbitrary amount of input data and deterministically produces fixed length output, known as the data's "hash", that can be used to easily verify that data has not been altered. If you change any single bit of the original data and run the hash algorithm, the hash will completely change. Because the hash is seemingly random, it is prohibitively difficult to try to produce a specific hash by changing the data which is being hashed.


Layer-1 or L1 is the term that’s used to describe the underlying main blockchain architecture. In Jax.Network it refers to the beacon chain, shard chains described by JaxNet protocol.


Layer-2 or L2 is an overlaying network that lies on top of the underlying blockchain.

Orphan Block

An orphan block is a block which has no known parent in the currently-longest block chain. Not to be confused with a Stale Block (which has a known parent, but is no longer part of the longest chain).

Orphan root

The root (first) block in an orphan block chain.

Proof of work

A result that can only be obtained through the use of computational resources. Changing the data in the proof of work requires redoing the work.

Super Nodes

A participant in a p2p network which connects to as many other nodes as possible.